Black Jack

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Black Jack
The record for the game in France was set in 1768[4], and England in the 1770s/1780s. However, the first rules were created in England as Vingt-Un back in 1800. [5] [6] Twenty-One is the original rule that was developed in the United States during the early 1800s. It is still called Vingt-Un today. The 1800 British English reprint was published in 1825. These were the first rules. [7] [8] English Vingt-Un evolved later into an American version of itself and was renamed Blackjack in 1899

Black Jack
Blackjack's first forerunner was Vingt-Un, an English version of the twenty-one-game Vingt-Un. This game is unknown in origin, but most likely of Spanish origin. Miguel de Cervantes (Spanish author, best known for Don Quixote) is the first to write down the reference. Cervantes was a gambler. The main characters in the novel "Rinconete y Cortadillo", from Novelas Ejemplares, are a group of crooks based in Seville. They cheat in Veintiuna (Spanish twenty one), and claim that the object is to pass without reaching 21 points. The ace is either 1 OR 11. It is played using a Spanish dam deck. This story was written in 1601-1602, implying that ventiuna has been played in Castile from the beginning of 17th century. This game was later mentioned in France and Spain. [3]

The first French record of the game was made in 1768 [4] and England in 1770s and 1780s respectively. However, the first English rules were published in 1800 under the name Vingt-Un. [5] [6] Twenty-One was invented in the United States in early 1800s. It is still known as Vingt-Un. The 1800 English rules were used to create the first rules. They were published in 1825. [7] [8] The English Vingt-Un evolved into a variant American of itself and was renamed Blackjack in 1899. [9]

Vingt-Un ("Twenty-One") was first introduced to the United States in 1800s. Other sources were available in the 1930s. There is a legend that casinos offered bonuses to promote Vingt-Un. The players were interested. If a player's hand included an Ace of Spades or a black Jack (Jack of the Fly, Jack of Spades), one of these bonuses would pay a one-to-1 payout. The hand was called "blackjack", and the bonus one-on-one payout meant that the name remained active despite being withdrawn. Thierry Depaulis, a French card historian, has refuted the story. He showed that Blackjack was given by Klondike Gold Rush researchers (1896-1999) to the American Vingt-Un game. Bonus usual Ace and 10 points card. It is possible that candidates for the highest bonus are also given the name of the mine, as blackjack is also a reference to the mineral zinc blender. As he was a combination of an Ace, black Jack and a Black Jack, he could not find historical evidence to support a special bonus. [9]

September 1956 was the first scientifically sound and mathematically sound attempt at devising a blackjack strategy. Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Carney, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published an article in the Journal of the American Statistical Association titled The Optimum Strategy for Blackjack. This article will serve as the basis for all future solid efforts to beat blackjack. Ed Thorp uses Baldwin hand calculations to confirm basic strategy. He later published his book Beat the Dealer in 1963.